Sigma (uppercase Σ, lowercase σ or in word-final position ς; Greek: σίγμα) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeral system, the Sigma symbol denotes the value of 200.

Sigma is the only one of the 24 Greek alphabet letters that has two different lowercase symbols. When in the middle of the word, the lowercase symbol σ is used, while the symbol ς is used when the small Sigma letter is at the end.

A great example would be the name Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς). Notice the difference between the two small Sigmas in the middle and the one at the end.

Furthermore, the capital Sigma’s epigraphic form has been simplified into a C-shaped symbol during the Hellenistic period. This variation, now known as the *lunate sigma*, became the standard form of capital Sigma until the Middle Ages.

The alphabetic position and appearance of the Sigma sign are thought to have been derived from the Phoenician letter shin, which resembles a W. Essentially, the Sigma takes the appearance of Shin, only rotated clockwise.

Some believed that Sigma’s original name may have been “san”. The historian Herodotus reported that the Dorians gave the name “san” to the letter known to Ionians as “sigma”.

It is also believed that the name “sigma” may have actually been invented by the Greeks to mean hissing.

The Greek alphabet letter Sigma has been adopted in the Old Italic alphabets. The simplified three-stroke sign, which omits the lowermost stroke, was widely adopted in Oscan, Etruscan, and Latin epigraphy.

The modified version of Sigma became the basis for the Latin S. Furthermore, the Coptic and Cyrillic letters C were derived from the lunate sigma.

Because of their distinct appearances, both the uppercase and lowercase Sigma symbols are widely used in different fields and industries, particularly in math and science.

The uppercase Sigma symbol is popular for being the symbol for the summation operator in math. Meanwhile, the lowercase Sigma sign is known for symbolizing the sigma receptor in biology.

Read on to learn more about the various usages for the Greek alphabet symbol Sigma.

As mentioned above, the most popular use for the uppercase Sigma sign is for representing summation. Aside from that, it also denotes the busy beaver function in computer science.

In statistics and probability theory, the symbol denotes the covariance matrix of a set of random variables.

The symbol has various uses in physics as well. For one, it denotes a class of baryons, a type of composite subatomic particles, in particle physics.

Also in particle physics as well as nuclear physics, the capital Sigma represents macroscopic cross sections. Meanwhile, the symbol is also used to denote self-energy in the field of condensed matter physics.

In economics, the symbol represents the balance between invoice classes and overall amount of debts and demands.

In terms of both computer science and linguistics, the lowercase Sigma letter represents the set of symbols that form an alphabet.

The lowercase Sigma sign represents more concepts and values than its uppercase counterpart.

As mentioned earlier, it symbolizes the sigma receptor in biology. It also represents the sigma factor of RNA polymerase.

The small Sigma letter also denotes the lifespan of a BMU or basic multicellular unit in bone remodeling. It was also used to represent a millisecond in 20th-century physiology texts.

The Greek alphabet letter Sigma’s lowercase symbol is also used in economics, business, and finance. Among its uses is to represent the volatility of a stock that is generally needed for options pricing.

On the other hand, it is used to denote the elasticity of substitution in macroeconomics.

In chemistry, the lowercase Sigma represents sigma bonds, as well as the sigma constant. In the field of physics, the symbol denotes various concepts including the cross section, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, the measure of electrical conductivity, surface tension, velocity dispersion, surface charge density, normal stress, and the Pauli matrices.

In math and statistics, it symbolizes sigma-fields, sigma-algebras, and sigma-finiteness. You’d also see it representing the standard deviation of a population, the Weierstrass sigma-function, the sum-of-divisors function, and the generated sigma-algebra.

The symbol is also used in place of an “unknown angle”.

With so many uses for either the uppercase or lowercase Sigma symbol, you may find yourself needing to type or insert it into a document. Fortunately, there are several ways to type and insert the Sigma letter even though you’re not using a Greek keyboard.

There are two basic ways to add a Sigma sign into a Word document. You can either use the ALT-code keyboard shortcut or use the Insert tab.

If you have a full keyboard with a numeric keypad, you can use the ALT-code shortcut. Press the ALT key and while holding onto it, type 228 to get the uppercase Sigma or 229 for the lowercase Sigma.

Meanwhile, to use the Insert tab, locate it on the Word functions menu. Click on Symbol > More Symbols to open the Symbol dialog box.

On the dialog box, make sure that the Subset field is set to Greek and Coptic. From the selection of symbols, look for the specific Sigma symbol you need. Then, click Insert and close the dialog box.

You can also use the Insert function when you need to insert the Sigma sign into your Excel sheet. The steps are practically the same as you would insert the symbol into a Word document.

Furthermore, you can also check out lists of Greek alphabet letters online, then copy the uppercase or lowercase Sigma. Simply paste it on your Excel file, and voila, you’ve got the Sigma added.

If you’re using a Mac computer, you’re in luck. There’s a very easy way to type a Greek alphabet letter such as the Sigma on a Mac.

If you need the lowercase Sigma symbol, simply press and hold the CONTROL key, then press g + s. On the other hand, to type the uppercase Sigma, hit the caps lock button first before doing the CONTROL + G + S keyboard shortcut.

]]>Pi (uppercase Π, lowercase π and ϖ; Greek: πι) is the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet. The Pi symbol essentially represents the sound [p].

Just like the rest of the Greek alphabet letters, Pi is also used in the Greek numeral system. It has a numerical value of 80.

The Greek Pi letter is thought to be a derivation of the Phoenician letter Pe. Subsequently, there are also other letters based on the Greek Pi, such as the Gothic pairthra (𐍀), Coptic Pi (Ⲡ, ⲡ), and Cyrillic Pe (П, п).

The uppercase Pi sign that we know today is actually considered a modified or the final version. It has an early form that looked almost similar to the uppercase Gamma (Γ), only with a small hook on the right-side edge.

Furthermore, although the standard lowercase Pi looks like this (π), another variant is also used (ϖ). This glyph variant has been generally referred to as the “pomega”, as it resembles a lowercase Omega that has a macron, a diacritical mark.

Originally, the symbol used for Pomega was actually the cursive form of the lowercase Pi. However, Pomega eventually came to be used for representing different meanings as well, making it an individual symbol altogether.

Like the rest of the Greek alphabet letters, the Pi letter is also used to symbolize many things, in different fields. Because the upper and lowercase Pi symbols do not resemble any Latin letters, both are used to denote various concepts.

The most popular use for the Pi symbol is the constant π, called as is (Pi). Also coined as “3.14”, this constant refers to the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle.

Read on to learn more about the other uses for the Pi sign.

There are several uses for the uppercase Greek Pi sign. It is used in different fields and industries, from law to science and engineering.

In the field of law, the uppercase Pi is used to represent a plaintiff when writing in legal shorthand. The capital Pi is also used as a symbol that represents the *Codex Petropolitanus*.

The *Codex Petropolitanus *is a Greek uncial codex or manuscript of the Gospels that originated from the 9th century. It is now kept in the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg.

In science and engineering, the uppercase Pi has several uses. For one, it denotes the product operator in mathematics. This makes the capital Pi notation analogous to the summation symbol, which is represented by the uppercase Sigma.

The capital Pi is also used to symbolize osmotic pressure in chemistry. Another use for the uppercase Pi is to represent the viscous stress tensor in fluid dynamics and continuum mechanics.

There are also various uses for the lowercase Pi sign. As mentioned above, one of its most important usages is to represent the ratio between a circle’s diameter and circumference, as used in Euclidean geometry.

The small Pi letter is also used to symbolize the prime-counting function in mathematics. It also denotes the natural projection on a manifold’s tangent bundle.

Meanwhile, in algebraic topology, it symbolizes homotopy groups. The lowercase Pi also symbolizes the unary operation of projection in relational algebra.

In particle physics, the Greek alphabet letter Pi represents the hadron (a composite particle that consists of two or more quarks) known as the pion or pi meson. Meanwhile, in dimensional analysis, it denotes the dimensionless parameters developed through the Buckingham π theorem.

In macroeconomics, the small letter Pi represents inflation rate, while in microeconomics, it represents economic profit.

In chemistry, this letter symbolizes the pi bond, a type of chemical bond wherein the p orbitals overlap each other.

In reinforcement learning, which is an area of machine learning, the lowercase Pi is used to denote “policy”.

Because the upper and lowercase Pi symbols have many uses, you may eventually find the need to type or insert the Pi letter into your documents. Fortunately, the Greek alphabet is widely used in various fields, which is why different methods for typing and inserting Greek alphabet letters are available for use.

There are three ways to add the Pi sign into a Word document. The first method uses an ALT shortcut, while the other two methods use Word’s Insert function.

To use the first method, all you have to do is press and hold the ALT key, then press 2-2-7 on the numeric keypad. Note, however, that this will only work using a full keyboard with a numeric keypad.

For the second method, locate the Insert tab, then click on the arrow beneath “Equation”. Use the arrow keys to scroll through the symbols, choose the Pi from the options, then press Enter.

To do the third method, go to Insert > Symbols > More Symbols to open the Symbol dialog box. On the Subset field, choose Greek and Coptic.

Then, you can either look for the Pi symbol from the options or type “03C0” on the Character Code field. Click Insert, then close the dialog box.

When you need to insert the Pi sign into an Excel file, you can also use the Insert tab method. Simply do the same steps as you would insert the symbol into a Word document.

Moreover, you can also try the good ol’ copy-paste method. Simply copy the Pi symbol from any source, then paste it onto your Excel sheet.

If you’re using a Mac and you need to type Pi, you might be thrilled to know that there are Mac keyboard shortcuts for the letters of the Greek alphabet.

To insert Pi on a Mac, press and hold the Option key, then press P. Release the keys at the same time.

]]>Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; Greek: έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. Just like other Greek alphabet letters, it also represents a value in the Greek numeral system. It has a value of 5.

The Greek Epsilon symbol is believed to have been adopted from the Phoenician letter He.

Meanwhile, letters that have subsequently been derived from the Greek Epsilon include the Cyrillic Е, È, Ё, Є and Э. The Roman letter E, as well as Ë and Ɛ are also believed to be of Greek origin.

Essentially, the uppercase or capital Epsilon sign is identical to the Latin letter E, which many people all over the globe use in their alphabets.

The lowercase Epsilon letter comes with two typographical variants, although both were derived from medieval Greek handwriting.

One version is the most common in modern Greek typography. It looks like a reversed number 3.

The other version is known as the lunate Epsilon. It looks like a semi-circle with a horizontal bar going across it.

There is also another Latin Epsilon, known as the “open e”. This open e is used as an IPA phonetic symbol. This version is thought to be the basis for the euro sign.

All in all, this Greek alphabet letter has at least six archaic local variants.

As with the rest of the Greek alphabet, Epsilon is used to symbolize and represent a number of concepts, measurements, constants, and values. However, the capital Epsilon letter is not as widely used as its lowercase counterpart (and its variants), because of its resemblance with the Latin letter E.

Let’s take a closer look at how the Epsilon symbol is used to denote various things.

In mathematics, specifically calculus, the Epsilon symbol is used to denote a random and small positive quantity in terms of the definition of limit. Also in math, David Hilbert utilized Epsilon terms to serve as an extension to first-order predicate calculus (first-order logic).

In statistics, Epsilon is used to denote error terms, as well as the degree of sphericity in repeated measures ANOVAs (analysis of variance).

The Epsilon symbol is also used to denote the Levi-Civita symbol, as well as to represent dual numbers. The Epsilon sign is also sometimes used to represent the Heaviside step function, which was named after Oliver Heaviside.

On the other hand, in set theory, the Epsilon symbol signifies the epsilon numbers, which are ordinal numbers that meet a fixed point.

In computer science, the term Epsilon was used in machine epsilon, which gives an upper bound on relative error.

In physics, the Epsilon symbol denotes the permittivity of a medium. When used with subscript 0, it denotes the permittivity of free space.

Also in physics, Epsilon can indicate a material’s strain.

The Epsilon sign is also used in astronomy. For one, it represents the fifth brightest star in a particular constellation. It also denotes axial tilt in planetary science.

The term Epsilon was also used to name Uranus’ farthest and most visible ring.

In chemistry, the Greek letter represents a chromophore’s molar extinction coefficient. Meanwhile, in economics, the lowercase Epsilon refers to elasticity.

In agronomy, Epsilon represents a plant or crop’s photosynthetic efficiency.

There are several uses for the Epsilon sign, particularly its lowercase symbol. As such, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that you may find yourself looking for ways on how to type or insert the symbol into documents.

Fortunately, there are a few ways to type and insert Greek alphabet letters like Epsilon even if you’re using an English keyboard. Check out the steps below to easily add Epsilon in your document.

If you need to type the Greek alphabet letter Epsilon sign in a Word document, you can do so by following a few steps.

**Method 1: Using the ALT keyboard shortcut**

If you’re using a full keyboard, which is a keyboard that has a full numeric keypad, you can use ALT-code shortcuts to type Epsilon. Basically, you’ll have to press and hold the ALT key while you type these codes on the numeric keypad:

- 238 for the lowercase Epsilon
- 941 for the lowercase Epsilon with Tonos
- 1013 for the lunate Epsilon
- 1014 for the reversed lunate Epsilon
- 917 for the uppercase Epsilon
- 904 for the uppercase Epsilon with Tonos

**Method 2: Using the Insert > Equation method**

Step 1: Locate the Insert tab on the functions menu in Word.

Step 2: Click on Equation.

Step 3: Choose the specific Epsilon symbol you need to insert. Click on it.

Step 4: Press Enter to finish adding the symbol into the document.

**Method 3: Using the Insert > Symbol method**

Step 1: Locate the Insert tab on the functions menu in Word.

Step 2: Click on Symbols, then More Symbols.

Step 3: On the dialog box, choose “Greek and Coptic” on the Subset field.

Step 4: A selection of symbols will be shown. Look for the specific Epsilon symbol you need to add to your document.

Step 5: Click Insert, then close the dialog box.

Should you need to add or insert the Epsilon letter into an Excel file, you can also follow the two methods under the Insert function.

Simply locate the Insert tab from the functions menu in your Excel window. Then, insert the Epsilon sign either as an Equation or as a Symbol.

Another way to add Epsilon symbols into an Excel file is to copy-paste it.

Typing the Epsilon sign on a Mac is as easy as adding other letters of the Greek alphabet. All you have to do is press and hold the CTRL key, press G, and then E.

The step above will give you a lowercase Epsilon. If you need the uppercase symbol, simply hit CAPS LOCK before typing the shortcut.

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Beta (uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ; Ancient Greek: βῆτα; Modern Greek: βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. Just like the rest of the Greek alphabet letters, Beta is also found in the Greek numeral system, representing the value of 2.

The name of the Greek Beta letter is thought to have been derived from *bait, *which is the acrophonic name of its Phoenician alphabet counterpart, beth.

In Ancient Greek, the name Beta was spelled βῆτα and pronounced as [bɛ̂ːta]. Meanwhile, in modern Greek monotonic orthography, it is now spelled as βήτα and pronounced as [ˈvita].

Among the Greek letters, the Beta symbol has the most number of local variations. There are also letters that have been derived from Beta: the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩ and the Latin letter B.

Similar to other Greek alphabet letters, Beta is also used as a symbol. However, because the uppercase Beta letter practically looks like the Latin letter B used globally, it was not as widely adopted to symbolize concepts and values.

The Beta sign is used in finance as a measure of risk in an investment portfolio. In this context, Beta is calculated as the covariance of an investment portfolio’s returns with its benchmark’s returns, then divided by the variance of the benchmark’s returns.

For instance, a beta of 1.5 in an investment portfolio essentially means that for every 1 percent change in the benchmark’s value, the portfolio’s value has a tendency to change by 1.5 percent.

In math and science, the Beta symbol is often used to represent a variable. As such, its meaning differs depending on the application.

For instance, in physics, Beta represents beta rays or beta radiation. This refers to the stream of unbound energetic electrons.

Meanwhile, the uppercase Beta symbol is used to denote nonstandardized partial slope coefficients, while the lowercase Beta sign denotes standardized coefficients (standard deviation-score form).

The lowercase Beta symbol is also used in place of an ordinal number in case the lowercase Alpha (α) has already been used.

The term Beta is also used in “beta angle”, which describes the angle between a spacecraft’s orbit plane and the vector from the sun.

In statistics, the Beta symbol represents the regression slope of type II error. Meanwhile, in computer science, the Beta sign is used to represent software release life cycle.

Because of its position in the Greek alphabet, Beta has become widely associated with the order, second. Furthermore, among its most popular use as a term is in computer science, where it is used to represent a program or software that is currently in its testing phase.

In modern slang, the term Beta has come to be used as an adjective that describes a person who displays behaviors that are associated with being undesirable and confrontational. For example, a “beta male” is the opposite of an “alpha male” and as such, doesn’t exhibit any of the dominant qualities of an alpha.

In meteorology, the name Beta was used for Hurricane Beta that rummaged the southwestern Caribbean in October 2005 during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the first time that Beta was used to name a tropical cyclone.

Hurricane Beta was the seventh and last major hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. When it was still forming as a tropical depression, it was called Tropical Depression Twenty-Six, until it got upgraded to Tropical Storm Beta.

Eventually, the tropical storm got strong enough to be classified as a cyclone. However, although the 2005 Hurricane Beta was a strong one, the name Beta was not retired as the hurricane committee thought that retiring a Greek letter name from the list of hurricane names was impractical.

As the Beta sign has various uses as a symbol, you may find the need to type or insert it into documents sooner or later. Fortunately, there are different ways to add Greek alphabet letters, such as Beta, into electronic documents.

Should you need to type the Greek alphabet letter Beta in a Word document, you can use three different methods.

The first method utilizes the ALT keyboard shortcut. If you’re using a full keyboard with the numeric keypad, then this will prove to be the fastest way to add the Beta sign into your document.

To use the keyboard shortcut, press and hold the ALT key, then press the following numbers/codes for the respective symbols:

- 225 for the lowercase Beta
- 976 for the cursive lowercase Beta
- 914 for the uppercase Beta

The other two methods call for the use of the Insert function in Word.

Go to Insert > Equation. Then, from the list of symbols, locate Beta, then press Enter.

For the other method, go to Insert > Symbol > More Symbols to open the Symbol dialog box. On the Subset field, choose Greek and Coptic.

Then, choose the Beta symbol you need from the selection of symbols. Click Insert, then close the dialog box.

If you need to insert the upper or lowercase Beta letter into an Excel file, you can also use the Insert method. Simply follow the steps described above for inserting it into a Word document.

Another easy way is to copy the Beta symbols from a source, then paste it onto your Excel sheet. You may copy these [Β, β, ϐ].

If you’re using a Mac computer and you need to add or type the Beta sign, you can also use a keyboard shortcut, as you would when typing other letters from the Greek alphabet.

To type the lowercase Beta, simply press and hold the following keys: CTRL + G + B. Then, release them at the same time.

If you need the uppercase Beta, hit the CAPS LOCK key first before doing the keyboard shortcut. It’s that easy!

]]>In today’s article, we focus on the Alpha sign — its origin, history, meanings, and significance then and now.

Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α; Ancient Greek: ἄλφα) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Being the first of the 24 Greek alphabet letters, it is also a part of the Greek numeral system.

It denotes the value of 1. The Greek letter Alpha is known to have been derived from the Phoenician and Hebrew letter, Aleph, which means leader or ox. The Cyrillic letter A, as well as the Latin letter A that’s also used in the English alphabet, are derivations of the Greek Alpha.

Plutarch, a Greek biographer and essayist, once started a discussion as to why Alpha became the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In a conversation with Ammonius, Plutarch said that his grandfather Lamprias maintained that the first articulate sound made by children is A, as in the Alpha.

Furthermore, based on Plutarch’s natural order of attribution where vowels were attributed to the planets, Alpha was connected to the moon.

Because of its significance as the first letter of the Greek alphabet, Alpha has become synonymous with the “beginning”. It has also been largely used to denote social hierarchical positions, such as the “Alpha male”.

Among the most popular usage of Alpha as a term is how it is used in religion, including Christianity.

In the New Testament, God declares himself as the “Alpha and Omega”, which means He is the first and the last, and the beginning and the end. (See Revelation 1:8 and Revelation 22:13.)

The Bible’s New Testament, which includes the Book of Revelation, was first written in Greek. As Alpha and Omega are the first and last Greek alphabet letters, they were used to denote the beginning and the end, which described the presence and power of God.

With God being the Alpha and Omega, it signifies that His existence and power is infinite and everlasting.

In general, the Alpha symbol is used to describe or refer to something that signifies the beginning of a particular process or occurrence. It is also used to denote a significant event or the origin of something. Because of this, it is utilized to represent different concepts and values in math and science.

In chemistry and physics, the Alpha sign denotes various concepts, including alpha particles, alpha radiation, and alpha carbon. It also symbolizes angular acceleration. The lowercase Alpha letter is also used to denote Sommerfeld’s constant or the fine-structure constant, which essentially describes the strength of electromagnetic interaction.

In mathematics, the Alpha letter is commonly used to represent different quantities, such as angles in algebraic solutions. It is also used to signify the area under a normal curve in statistics. As such, it denotes the significance level when trying to prove an alternative or null hypothesis.

Possibly one of the most popular uses of Alpha is in zoology, where it is used to describe the most dominant member of a dog or wolf pack.

Alpha is also used in aerodynamics, where it is used to symbolize the angle of attack of an aircraft.

Furthermore, Alpha is also used to signify the letter A in the NATO phonetic alphabet, which is the standard spelling alphabet used by many sectors including aviation and military. It is joined by the other Greek letter Delta, which stands for the letter D.

The lowercase Alpha is also used in the APL programming language together with the lowercase Omega to denote the left and right arguments.

As a symbol, the lowercase Alpha is more widely used than the uppercase Alpha because of the latter’s similarity with the Latin/English letter A. To avoid confusion, the uppercase Alpha [Α] is not used as a symbol in math, science, or other fields — unless it is used as an acronym for the letter A itself.

Need to type the Alpha symbol but don’t know how to insert it into your document? Here are the methods and steps you can use.

There are various ways to type the Alpha sign in Microsoft Word or other word processors.

One way is to use the Insert tab. Locate the Insert tab, then click on Symbol. This will open the Symbol dialog box. On the “Subset:” field, choose “Greek and Coptic”. Then, on the field “from:”, choose “Unicode (hex)”. Next, look for the Alpha symbol (α) and click on it. Click “Insert”, then close the box.

You can also use the ALT-code method. While typing, press and hold ALT, then type 225 on the numeric keypad. Note that this keyboard shortcut only works if you have a full keyboard with a numeric keypad.

If you need to add the Alpha sign in your Excel sheet, you can also use the Insert method as you would in a Word document. Simply look for the Insert > Symbol tab, then select the Alpha letter from the options in the dialog box.

Another simple way to add the Alpha symbol in Excel is to copy-paste it. You can copy these symbols: [uppercase Α, lowercase α], and paste in any cell in your sheet.

It’s easy to add the Alpha symbols on documents using a Mac. Simply use the following keyboard shortcuts:

- For uppercase Alpha: CTRL + G + A
- For lowercase Alpha: CTRL + G + a

Lambda ((uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; Greek: λάμ(β)δα) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. Just like other Greek alphabet letters, it also has a role in the Greek numeral system, representing a value of 30.

It is considered to have been derived from the Phoenician letter Lamed. The Latin letter L and Cyrillic letter El. Ancient grammarians had evidence that the pronunciation for the letter in Ancient Greek is la:bda. Meanwhile, it is pronounced as lamda in Modern Greek.

The Lambda sign has undergone various modifications over the centuries. Most of the variants had two straight strokes, one of which is longer than the other. Meanwhile, other variants had a vertical line and a horizontal stroke going to the right. Ultimately, the Greeks settled on the variant that had the angle at the top, while the Romans had the angle at the lower-left.

Because of their uniqueness and the fact that many of the first philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians were from Greece, the Greek alphabet letters have been widely used to signify different things. Because of this, the Lambda symbol holds different meanings.

In particle physics, the uppercase Lambda symbol signifies the lambda particle, which is a type of subatomic particle. It is also used to collectively represent the set of logical axioms, known as Lambda, in the axiomatic method of logical deduction. Meanwhile, in number theory, Lambda signifies the von Mangoldt function.

In computer science, Lambda signifies the time window wherein a certain process is observed to determine the working memory set, which is significant in the virtual memory management of a digital computer.

Meanwhile, in astrophysics, the Lambda sign is used to represent the likelihood of a small body encountering a planet or dwarf planet, which may lead to deflection. Generally, a body with a high-value lambda is expected to have a clear neighborhood around its orbit.

In chemistry, the uppercase Lambda is used to denote the lambda isomers. In electrochemistry, it symbolizes an electrolyte solution’s equivalent conductance.

There are also various uses for the lowercase Lambda. For instance, in evolutionary algorithms, the symbol is used to signify the number of offsprings that may be generated from a current population in a generation.

Meanwhile, in physics, mathematics, and electronics engineering, the Lambda denotes the wavelength of any kind of wave.

Lambda also denotes the radioactivity decay constant, which is used in nuclear physics. This constant is closely related to a radioactive material’s half-life.

In computer science and mathematical logic, the lowercase Lambda symbol is used to denote anonymous functions, as expressed with the lambda calculus concepts.

In multi-dimensional calculus, the symbol is used to denote a Lagrange multiplier. Meanwhile, in solid-state electronics, the lowercase Lambda is used to indicate a MOSFET’s (metal-oxide-semiconductor filed-efficient transistor) channel length modulation parameter. On the other hand, it is used in ecology to denote a population’s long-term intrinsic growth rate.

In mathematical set theory, the sign symbolizes the Lebesgue measure. Meanwhile, it is used for the term, Goodman and Kruskal’s lambda, which indicates the proportional reduction error in statistics.

The lowercase Lambda is also used in electrochemistry to denote the ionic conductance of a particular ion. In neurobiology, the symbol denotes the length constant of the electric potential in a cell membrane. Furthermore, in heat transfer, Lambda signifies the heat of vaporization in every mole of a material.

Given the various ways that the Lambda sign is used in different fields of study and industry, you may eventually find the need to insert it in your documents. Fortunately, even if you’re using an English keyboard, there are various ways to type and add the Lambda uppercase and lowercase symbols.

There are three methods for typing the Lambda letter symbols in a Word document.

The first is the ALT keyboard shortcut method. Here, you just have to press and hold the ALT key, then press 955 on the numeric keypad. Remember that this shortcut will only work if you have the full numeric keypad on your keyboard.

The second method uses the Insert tab. Locate the Insert tab, then go to Symbol. The Symbol dialog box will open. On the field, “Subset:” choose “Greek and Coptic” from the dropdown.

Then, on the field “from:” at the lower right, choose “Unicode (hex)” from the dropdown options. Now, look for the Lambda symbol you need to insert.

The final method is to use the Insert > Equation ribbon. When the space for the equation appears, type “\lambda” on the field, then press Enter. The equation should automatically transform into the Lambda sign.

There are two easy methods you can use to insert the Lambda symbol into your Excel sheet.

The first method follows the same steps for inserting the symbol into a Word document. Go to the Insert tab, select Symbol, then look for and select the Lambda sign from the options.

Another way is to simply copy a Lambda letter from anywhere on the Web.

There are several ways a Mac differs from a Windows computer, including how to insert symbols such as the Lambda.

Press Command + Control + Space to open the Characters dialog box. On the search bar, type “lamda” (not lambda). Then, choose the specific Lambda symbol you need from the options.

You can also use the shortcut, Control + G + L for the capital Lambda, and Control + G + l for the lowercase Lambda.

]]>Omega (uppercase: Ω, lowercase: ω) is the 24th letter of the Greek alphabet. Written as ὦ μέγα in Ancient Greek and ωμέγα in Modern Greek, the Omega letter represents a value of 800 in the Greek numerical system, also known as the Gematria.

Omega, as a word, literally means “great O”. This is in contrast with the other Greek alphabet letter Omicron, which means “little O”.

The Omega sign was not part of the first set of Greek alphabet letters. It was not introduced until the late 7th century BC. It was first used in the Asia Minor’s Ionian cities to represent the long half-open [ɔː], making it a variation of Omicron, but broken at the side and with the edges turned outward to the different directions.

In other words, Omega was born out of the Greek alphabet itself, and it was not derived from other alphabets. The name Omega, however, is of Byzantine origin. In Classical Greek, Omega was referred to as ō (ὦ), while Omicron was pronounced as ou (οὖ).

The Cyrillic Omega (Ѡ, ѡ) is a derivation of the Greek Omega letter. While the Latin alphabet also borrowed the Omega symbol, it had very little use that it’s almost as if it was never adopted.

As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, the Omega sign is often used to signify the end, and as such, is in direct contrast with Alpha.

Both the uppercase and lowercase Omega signs have various uses in today’s world. Because the uppercase and lowercase signs are completely different from each other, scientists and other experts found various uses for both of the symbols.

From chemistry to physics, there are a lot of things that the uppercase Omega represents.

In chemistry, it is the symbol used for oxygen-18, a stable, natural isotope of oxygen. It is also the symbol used to denote ohm, the unit of electrical resistance. Meanwhile, in statistical mechanics, it symbolizes the multiplicity in a particular system.

In particle physics, the uppercase Omega represents the Omega byrons. In astronomy, it represents the density of the universe, as well as an orbit’s longitude of the ascending node.

Moreover, in mathematics and computer science, the uppercase Omega represents the Omega constant, the subobject classifier, prime divisors, and the Chaitin’s constant.

The uppercase Omega has also been widely used as a logo, the most popular of which is the Omega Watches. It is also a part of the original logo of Pioneer. It is also one of the components of the badge of the United Kingdom’s Supreme Court.

As with its big sibling, the lowercase Omega also has various uses in different fields.

In biochemistry and chemistry, the lowercase Omega symbolizes one of the RNA polymerase units. It also symbolizes the measure of evolution at the protein level.

In physics, it denotes angular velocity and frequency. Meanwhile, in meteorology, it signifies the change of pressure in relation to the time of a parcel of air.

In mathematics, it is used in number theory to denote an arithmetic function. It also symbolizes the Wright Omega function, as well as the first ordinal number in set theory.

Do you need to type or insert the Omega sign in your work? Are you simply curious how to easily type and insert it into a document? There are various ways to insert an Omega sign in a document. Read on to learn the tricks.

There are two basic ways to insert an Omega sign into a Word document. First is through the Insert tab, while the other requires you to use an ALT code.

To insert the Omega symbol in a Word document, simply locate the “Insert” tab. Then, look for “Symbols”. Click on the dropdown ad wait for the Insert dialog box to appear. In the dialog, you’ll see the field, “Subset:” on the right side. Click on the dropdown and choose “Greek and Coptic”. Meanwhile, on the “from:”, which is at the right bottom part of the dialog box, choose Unicode (hex). The symbols selection should now change, and you can find the Omega symbol you need.

The other method uses the ALT+code keyboard shortcut. If your keyboard has the traditional numeric keypad, you can try this: Press and hold ALT, then type 969 for the lowercase Omega, and 937 for the uppercase.

Being largely a mathematical symbol, you may find the need to insert the symbol Omega into your Excel file. There are two ways to do this.

The first is to utilize the Insert method as described above. In your Excel window, locate the Insert menu or tab. Then, follow the steps as you would insert an Omega in a Word document.

The next method requires the use of the keyboard shortcut, with an additional step. On the cell where you want to insert the symbol, type the unicode 3C9 for lowercase Omega and 3A9 for uppercase Omega. Make sure the font is set to Hex. Now, press and hold on the ALT key, then press X. The code should automatically change into its symbol form.

If you’re a Mac user, you might be surprised that it’s actually very easy to insert an Omega uppercase or lowercase symbol as you type. Simply press and hold the Option key, then press g or w to insert the lowercase Omega. If you need the uppercase symbol, turn caps lock on, then try the shortcut again.

This wraps up our piece on the Greek Omega symbol, its origins, meanings and uses. If you liked reading it check out our posts on other Greek letters through the top navigation menu.

]]>Theta, written in ancient Greek as θῆτα and as θήτα in modern Greek has an uppercase (Θ or ϴ) and lowercase (θ) symbol. Both resemble the number 0 or a circle or oval with a horizontal line in the middle. It is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, and is known to have been derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the Greek numeral system, Theta has a value of 9.

In Ancient Greek, Theta represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/. Meanwhile, in modern Greek, it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/.

The Cyrillic letter Fita is said to have been derived from the Greek’s Theta.

In ancient times, Theta was used to symbolize death, while Tau (another Greek letter) represented life and resurrection. True enough, in ancient Athens, the Theta sign was used as an abbreviation for thanatos (θάνατος), which means death. This is because the symbols somewhat resemble a skull.

Aside from the symbolism that Theta was associated with during the ancient times, there are many other ways the Greek symbol is still being used today. Because Theta has a different symbol for upper and lowercase, and the symbols are not similar to any letters of the Latin or English alphabet, they both have different uses in the fields of math, science, and other fields.

The uppercase Theta letter Θ or ϴ has various uses in the modern world. For instance, it is used to denote the dimension of temperature, as specified by the SI standard (International System of Units). It also represents the dimensionless temperature in transport phenomena, a field of study in engineering, chemistry, and physics.

The uppercase Theta also represents the asymptotically tight bound in the analysis of algorithms in computer science. This refers to the “big O notation”.

In set theory, the uppercase Theta sign denotes a certain ordinal number. Meanwhile, in particle physics, it symbolizes the exotic baryons, Pentaquarks.

In neurology, Theta signifies a brain signal frequency that ranges from 4-8 Hz. It is joined by Beta, Alpha, and Delta.

Theta also signifies the variable that indicates temperature difference when it comes to heat transfer. The symbol also denotes the angle of incident X-ray beam in X-ray scattering techniques.

In finance, Theta is considered one of the variables that represent time decay of options.

The lowercase Theta letter θ also has various uses when it comes to representing different values, measurements, and other aspects.

One of its primary uses is representing a plane angle in geometry. It also denotes an unknown variable in trigonometry. Meanwhile, it symbolizes the special function of a series of complex variables.

In prime number theory, the lowercase Theta signifies one of the Chebyshev functions. Meanwhile, in meteorology, it is used to denote potential temperature.

The term “Theta” is used in Theta Type Replication. This is a type of DNA replication of bacteria, specific to circular chromosomes.

In neurology, the lowercase Theta represents the threshold value of artificial neuron.

As the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, the Theta was used to symbolize the Bayer designation. This refers to the eights star in a constellation as seen from the Earth.

The lowercase Theta letter also represents the statistical parameter commonly used to write the likelihood function. In the study of population genetics, Theta sign represents the Watterson estimator for the population mutation rate.

In economics, the lowercase Theta denotes the reserve ratio of banks. It also has a use in pharmacology, where it represents the fraction of ligand bound to a macromolecule, as denoted by the Hill Equation.

The lowercase Theta also signifies the Heaviside step function, also known as the unit step function. It also represents the ordinal collapsing function, a technique developed by Solomon Feferman.

Do you need to type or insert the Theta symbol on a document or spreadsheet? Fortunately, there are several ways to do so.

If you’re creating a report or article and you need the Theta symbols added to your Word document, there are several techniques you can use.

First, you can use the Insert tab, then go to Equations. Click on the arrow or dropdown, then look for the Theta sign you need.

Another way is to use the Insert tab again, but this time use the Symbol option. When you click on Symbol, the dialog will open. In the field “Subset:” choose Greek and Coptic. In the field “from:” choose Unicode (hex). Then, look for the Theta symbol. Select it, then click Insert. Close the dialog window.

If you have a numerical keypad on your keyboard, you can also use an Alt code. Press and hold the Alt key, then press the code 952.

If you need to insert the Theta symbol in an Excel cell, you can also use the Insert function. Just like with inserting it on a Word document, you can go straight to Insert > Symbol. Then, change the required fields as described above, then choose the Theta sign you need to insert into your sheet.

Moreover, you can also look for the symbols online, copy them, and paste on your Excel document.

It’s very easy to add the Theta symbol when using a Mac computer. You can use a very simple keyboard shortcut. Simply press the Option key, and while holding it, press G, then Q or J.

This concludes our piece on the Theta symbol. If you liked reading it, you will surely enjoy reding about other Greek alphabet letters. Simply, check them out through the main menu please. Thanks for reading!

]]>Delta (uppercase Δ, lowercase δ or 𝛿; written in Greek as δέλτα), is the fourth letter of the ancient Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeral system, Delta holds the value of 4.

As with other Greek letters, Delta is believed to have also been derived from a Phoenician letter. It is related to the Phoenician letter, dalet. Meanwhile, the Latin letter D is essentially derived from Delta. The Cyrillic letter Д is also considered to be a variation of the Greek letter Δ.

In Ancient Greek language, the letter Delta represented a voiced dental plosive /d/. Meanwhile, in Modern Greek phonetics, it represents a voiced dental fricative /ð/, similar to the “th” in “this” or “that”. Delta is also romanized as d or dh.

You are probably already familiar with “Delta” as a term. Indeed, the Delta letter is used as both a symbol and a term for several things.

For instance, a river delta is called as such because of its triangular shape, which is similar to the uppercase delta letter. It’s good to note that this term, contrary to the popular legend, was not coined by Herodotus.

Delta sign also stands for the letter D in the NATO phonetic spelling military alphabet. Delta is joined by other another Greek letter, Alpha, in the NATO spelling alphabet. Alpha stands for the letter A.

Aside from these more popular use for Delta as a term, there’s a wide range of other uses for both the upper and lowercase Delta symbol.

There are various uses for the uppercase Delta symbol in the fields of science and mathematics.

Delta represents the change of any changeable quantity. As such, it symbolizes the difference operator in science and math equations. The triangle-like uppercase Delta is also used to symbolize the Laplace operator. It also represents the discriminant in a polynomial equation, particularly a quadratic equation.

Because the uppercase Delta symbol is essentially a triangle, it is also used to denote the area of a triangle. It also represents the symmetric difference between two sets of elements. Uppercase Delta is also used to denote a macroscopic change, as well as the uncertainty in a physical variable, as related to the uncertainty principle.

In physics, the uppercase Delta symbolizes delta particles. Meanwhile, in chemistry, it represents the addition of heat in a particular reaction.

The symbol is also used in legal shorthand, where it represents “defendant”. In music, it is the major seventh chord in jazz notation.

Furthermore, the American Dental Association considers the uppercase Delta symbol, together with Omicron, as the symbol of dentistry.

There are also a lot of uses for the lowercase Delta letter. In calculus, it denotes the value of a variable, as well as a functional derivative in functional calculus. Another way it is used in calculus is to define the continuity or limit of a given function.

Other uses for the lowercase Delta in mathematics include representing the Kronecker delta, the degree of vertex in graph theory, and the Dirac delta function.

Meanwhile, it is used to denote deflection in engineering mechanics, as well as the force of interest in actuarial science.

In chemistry, the lowercase data is used to denote the chemical shift of nuclear magnetic resonance. It also represents the relative electronegativity of the different atoms in a particular molecule. It also represents partial charge.

The lowercase Delta symbol is also used in astronomy to denote the declination of an object in an equatorial coordinate system. Meanwhile, in macroeconomics, it represents the rate of depreciation of an aggregate capital stock of a particular economy.

In electricity, the Delta sign denotes the angle between current and voltage in a system that shows electrical reactance.

Because of the so many uses for both the upper and lowercase symbol, you may find the need to type it at one point or another. It can be tricky to add the symbols onto your documents, but there are definitely ways to do it.

There are several ways to type or insert the Delta symbol in a Word document.

One method is to use an Alt code. The Alt code for Delta sign is 0394. To use this, place the insertion pointer where you need to add the symbol. Then, type the Alt code 0394. Next, press Alt+X. The code will automatically transform into a Delta symbol.

Meanwhile, you can also use the Insert Symbol Dialog. In your Word document, click on the Insert tab, then look for the Symbol tab. You may need to choose “More Symbols…”. On the Symbol dialog, you can type in the “Character code” box the code 0394. Then on the “from:” dropbox, choose “Unicode (hex)”. You can also specify “Greek and Coptic” on the “Subset:” dropdown. Look for the Delta sign you need, then click Insert.

Inserting symbols in Excel is a bit complicated than typing them in Word. Fortunately, there are several workarounds.

You can use a keyboard shortcut to insert a solid triangle to represent the uppercase Delta letter. To do this, select the cell where you need to insert the symbol. Then, press F2 to enter edit mode. Use the shortcut by pressing Alt + 30. Note, however, that this will only work if you have the numeric keypad.

A fast way to insert Delta sign into your Excel file is to simply copy it from another source and paste it on your sheet. You may also use the Insert Symbol dialog, the steps of which are the same as when you insert in a Word document (refer above).

It’s quite easier to type the Delta symbol on a Mac, particularly on MS Word installed in a Mac. Simply press Option + J and voila! You’ve got the Delta symbol on your doc. If this doesn’t work, a simple copy-and-paste may do the trick.

Did you enjoy reading about the Delta symbol? Then, you might want to check out our other posts on the Greek alphabet through the sections in the top menu. Thanks for reading!

]]>Science and Mathematics as we know them today have deep Greek origins. With its complex government system and rich architecture, Greece is actually considered as an exceptional model of mathematic and scientific achievement until today.

Ancient scholars in and out of Greece needed a means to communicate their studies, theories, formulas, and findings. So, they widely conversed in Greek and Latin. To maintain universality, scholars published their work and ideas using those two languages.

Because of this, understanding between scholars was possible even though their native languages were different.

Variables used in scientific and mathematical formulas and solutions required symbols that will represent them in writing. Whenever scholars needed a symbol to represent a new finding or idea, the Greek alphabet proved to be the most viable source of symbols.

As the third letter of the Greek alphabet, gamma (γάμμα ) has also been utilized to represent various mathematical and scientific concepts, from specific gravity to complex propagation constants. In this post, we take a look at the origins, meanings, and uses of the Greek gamma letter.

The Greek letter Gamma is written as (Γ) in uppercase and (γ) in lowercase. It is known to have been derived from the Phoenician letter representing the /g/ phoneme, (𐤂 *gīml*). As such, it is also related to the Hebrew letter gimel that is represented by the symbol ג.

Based on its name “gamma”, it has been thought to represent a camel’s neck. However, this interpretation is widely challenged. Some believe that the letter was actually derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph that represented a throwing stick or club.

In the Greek numeral system, gamma represents the value of 3. Furthermore, gamma represents the “g” sound in both Ancient and Modern Greek.

Some letters in other alphabets were also derived from gamma. These are the Roman C and the Cyrillic Г.

Typically, when Greek letters such as the gamma are used in science or math, their form is somehow different from the letter used in the Greek alphabet. The reason for this is isolation and distinction from other concepts that may also use the gamma as their symbolism basis.

The most common and popular use for the lowercase gamma (γ) is related to radiation. Specifically, the Gamma radiation. It is also used in neuroscience as the Gamma waves, a type of brain wave.

It is also used to represent chromatic number in graph theory. It also represents the photon, which is a type of elementary particle found in light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. In materials science, the gamma symbolizes surface energy.

Meanwhile, the gamma also plays a significant part in the theory of relativity, as it represents the Lorentz factor.

Gamma also has multiple uses in thermodynamics, where it represents heat capacity ratio and activity coefficient. On the other hand, it symbolizes gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism. It also symbolizes the propagation constant of electromagnetic waves.

In mathematics, the lowercase gamma represents the Euler-Mascheroni constant.

The lowercase gamma is also used in civil and mechanical engineering. It represents specific weight, as well as the solid solution of iron, Austenite.

The uppercase gamma (Γ) also has various uses in different fields. In mathematics, it is popularly used for the gamma function, which represents the extension of the factorial in complex numbers. Uppercase gamma is also used to signify upper incomplete gamma function, as well as P-adic gamma function.

Meanwhile, in differential geometry, the uppercase gamma is used to represent Christoffel symbols.

In statistics and probability theory, it is used for the gamma distribution. Uppercase gamma also represents the reflection coefficient in electrical engineering and physics.

In fluid mechanics, circulation is symbolized by an uppercase gamma.

The Greek symbol is also used in inorganic chemistry to represent a molecule’s symmetry elements. The uppercase gamma also symbolizes the decay width of a particle. It also signifies the typing environment in a type system, as well as a Turing machine’s tape alphabet.

Because of the wide range of usage for the Greek gamma symbol, one may eventually find the need to type and insert its lower and uppercase forms in documents and web pages. Here are ways to type and insert the gamma symbol when using a computer.

ALT codes can be used and entered directly on many programs, including Microsoft Word and Adobe Photoshop. However, not all ALT codes work on all programs. Certain keyboards also do not allow the entry of ALT codes. Regardless, you can try the following steps to enter a lowercase and uppercase gamma letter in your document.

- Make sure the NUM LOCK is turned on.
- Press the ALT key, then type 947 for the lowercase gamma sign, and 226 or 915 for the uppercase symbol.

For Office applications such as Word and PowerPoint, and other similar apps, you can simply use the Insert tab.

- Go to the Insert tab, then click Symbol. The Symbol dialog box will pop up.
- Look for the Font dropdown, then choose Symbol as the font.
- Then, look for the symbol you need to insert, which is the uppercase or lowercase gamma.
- Click Insert, then click on X at the upper right corner of the dialog box to close it.

Meanwhile, if you are creating a web page and allowed to create an HTML document, you can use the following HTML codes:

**Uppercase Gamma: Γ or Γ**

- Lowercase Gamma: γ or γ

Furthermore, you can also use unicode text to enter gamma symbols. Here are the steps:

- Place the cursor in the spot where you need to insert a gamma letter.
- Type 0393 to insert an uppercase gamma and 03B3 for a lowercase gamma.
- Then, press Alt+X.
- The code should automatically change to show the respective gamma letter.

This wraps up our piece on **the Gamma symbol**, its meaning, uses and origins. If you are interested in reading about other Greek letters, please check out our other articles in the relevant section through the top menu.